Water Treatment Resins
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Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic "ion exchangers".
Typical ion exchangers are ion-exchange resins (functionalized porous or gel polymer), zeolites, montmorillonite, clay, and soil humus. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers, which exchange positively charged ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which exchange negatively charged ions (anions). There are also amphoteric exchangers that are able to exchange both cations and anions simultaneously. However, the simultaneous exchange of cations and anions can be more efficiently performed in mixed beds, which contain a mixture of anion- and cation-exchange resins, or passing the treated solution through several different ion-exchange materials.
Oxygen Scavengers to Prevent Corrosion: Corrosion of boilers occurs when untreated feedwater is used. The dissolved oxygen in the feedwater reacts with the metal scales of the boiler to form oxides. This can be prevented by using oxygen scavengers (also known as oxygen absorbers), that’ll remove or reduce the level of oxygen in the entire system. The most commonly used oxygen scavengers are activated charcoal and a mixer of iron powder with sodium chloride.
Alkalinity builders: All industrial process work at an optimal pH range, failing which appropriate results cannot be obtained. Most of the high pressure reactions need a high pH level. To increase the pH level, chemically modified substances called alkalinity builders are added to the boiler. Most industrial process use concentrated sodium hydroxide based alkalinity builders, which are balanced with phosphates, chelants, carbonates and certain polymers.
Scale and corrosion inhibitors: One of the major issues that affect the operations of industrial boilers is accumulation of salt deposits on the internal lining of the system. As a part of the equipment maintenance, scale and corrosion inhibitors are used. The common inhibitors are catalysed sodium bisulphite, carbohydrazide, diethyl hydroxylamine and cyclohexylamine. Oxygen scavengers also work well as scale and corrosion inhibitors.
Sludge conditioners: If the boiler is not maintained properly, suspended particles tend to settle at the lining of the system. If left untreated, it can drastically reduce the boiler efficiency. A sludge conditioner is often used to remove and clean the boilers. At some instances, it is also used to prevent and control scale formation.
Other chemicals: In addition to the above said methods to treat feedwater, there are numerous other water treatment methods that are process-specific. Condensate line protection and multi-functional treatments are some of the important methods used in treating the boiler feed water.